Friday, March 8, 2013

Luke 22 - Passover, Garden, and Trials

http://www.ccel.org/bible/phillips/JBPhillips.htm

Here is a link to a map that you can open in another window and click on to make it larger. Then, you can print it off and have it alongside you as you follow Jesus' steps to the cross: MAP OF JERUSALEM.

LINK: Luke 22

BACKGROUND 

Tuesday of Holy Week

207. Religious leaders plot to kill Jesus: Matthew 26:1-5, Mark 14:1-2, Luke 22:1-2

It is two days before the Passover and unleavened bread (I place this at Tuesday, but some commentators think this is Wednesday), and the religious leaders have decided to arrest and kill Jesus, but their sly plan was to wait until the religious pilgrims from the Passover feast have gone home. 

208. Judas agrees to betray Jesus: Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:3-6

What was Judas' motive? We will never really know. It may have been money (John 12:6). Thirty silver coins was the price paid for the redemption of a slave (Exodus 21:32) and was prophesied as the price to be paid for Jesus, the rejected Shepherd (Zechariah 10:12). It prophesied that one of the Messiah's close friends would betray Him (Psalm 41:9; 55:12-14). 

Thursday before Sunset

209. Disciples prepare for the Passover: Matthew 26:17-19, Mark 14:12-16. Luke 22:7-13


The Feast of Unleavened Bread was seven days long. The first day, Passover lambs were sacrificed (Mark 14:12). Passover and this Feast are often lumped together and just called Passover (Luke 22:1,7). See below for a fun thing to do on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread!

We do not know where the "Upper Room" was located other than it was in the city of Jerusalem. 


They purchased and prepared the Passover food. Have you ever celebrated a Passover? It is a great object lesson. We often do it on Holy Week. Here are pictures of us celebrating with others. 



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) - The Last Supper (1495-1498)
Leonardo da Vinci [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
211. Jesus and the disciple share the Last Supper: Matthew 26:20-30, Mark 14:17-26, Luke 22:14-30, John 13:21-30

Leonardo da Vinci's painting did not get it right. They were all reclining and not sitting at a table (Matthew 26:20), but it is still a beautiful work of art!

John's account is the only one that mentions that Jesus was "troubled in spirit" (the Greek word, etarachthÄ“, means stirred or agitated) when he identified that someone would betray Him. John, as the disciple Jesus loved, was reclining at Jesus' bosom and would have been more able to sense Jesus' spirit at the time. Luke is the only one who records Jesus saying "woe" (judgment) on the man who does the betraying. How disconcerting to learn that one of their own would betray Jesus.


The Matthew, Mark, and John accounts record the betrayer as the one who dips together with Jesus in the bowl. John's account records Him doing this act and giving the morsel to Judas. It was a "final extension of grace to Judas. A host's giving a morsel of bread to a guest was a sign of friendship" (The Bible Knowledge Commentary, John 13:25-27), but Judas did not take it as that and Satan entered him (John 13:27). John is the only gospel writer that records this and that the disciples still did not know Judas was the betrayer. 


How astounding that Luke would record a dispute about who was the greatest after Jesus had just said that someone would betray Him (Luke 22:24-30). Jesus told them this talk was "pagan thinking." The way UP to greatness was DOWN through service. In fact, it is "lowly service" in the Greek! Eventually, they would sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes in His Kingdom (Luke 22:30, Matthew 19:28). 


During the meal, Jesus instituted the Lord's Supper where the wine would represent the blood of the covenant and the unleavened bread, His body. The John account does not record Jesus' words regarding this. The Lord's Supper is to be done in remembrance of this (1 Corinthians 11:23-26). It is to be a memorial feast where believers are reminded that Jesus gave His body and blood for the redemption of the world! It is also celebrated to look forward to the day when He will come again. Lastly, it is a time where we can look within, examine our hearts, and repent of known sin (1 Corinthians 11:27-32).  Jesus was the Passover lamb, sacrificed for us, let us celebrate the feast (John 1:29, 1 Corinthians 5:7-8)!


Here is general order of the last supper from http://www.biblewise.com/bible_study/characters/passion-week.php:
The order of the last supper is in 13 steps [some books show more steps, others fewer steps, so this is a general guideline]
  1. The head of the company, Jesus in this case, opens with a prayer and
  2. Gives the 1st cup of wine for everyone in the company to drink.
  3. The head of the company washes his hands. 
  4. The head of the company dips some of the bitter herbs into the salt water or vinegar and speaks a blessing, eats some of the herbs and hands them to the others.
  5. The unleavened bread is broken into pieces, reserving half to be eaten after the supper, called the after dish.
  6. The 2nd cup is filled and the youngest in the company (John) is instructed to ask questions about the significance of the Passover.
  7. Psalms 113 and 114 are sung.
  8. The 3rd cup of wine is filled, followed by prayer, and they all drink the cup.
  9. Everyone washes his hands.
  10. Supper begins by eating the unleavened bread and bitter herbs and the lamb. Everyone in the group must eat at least an olive size portion of the lamb. All of the lamb is to be consumed or destroyed. No bones of the lamb are to be broken.
  11. The after dish of the bread broken earlier is eaten. It is believed this is where Jesus said, “Take eat, this is my body.”
  12. The 4th cup of wine is the point when Jesus told them to all drink of it, this was his blood.
  13. Conclude with hymns and prayers. Psalms 115-118 and the Great Hallel – Psalm 136.
212. Jesus predicts Peter's denial: Luke 22:31-38, John 13:31-38

John records that Jesus said, "Now is the Son of Man glorified (The Amplified says, "Now He has achieved His glory, His honor, His exaltation!"), and God is glorified in Him; if God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and will glorify Him immediately."  As I mentioned in a previous post, "glorify" is a key word in the Upper Room Discourse section of the book of John.  Now that Jesus' time had come, it will come without delay. He was going away, and they were to love one another as He loved them (John 13:34, 35 should be memorized!). 


Of course, Peter could not handle Jesus going away just as he could not handle Jesus washing His feet. Jesus knew that Peter would not, at first, lay down his life for Jesus, but Satan would be given permission to "sift him like wheat" (Luke 22:31). We see another example of this in the book of Job.  Jesus predicted perfecting in the sifting. Denial would lead to a strengthened man who would strengthen others, and Peter's epistles later on in life will reflect that. Stay tuned.


223. Jesus agonizes in the garden: Matthew 26:36-46, Mark 14:32-42, Luke 22:39-46

After the Last Supper in the Upper Room (Possibly #3 on the map), they went to the Garden of Gethsemane (#4). Gethsemane means "an oil press." Obviously, the garden contained an olive grove and Jesus had often gone there with His disciples (John 18:1-2). He took the same disciples that He had taken to the transfiguration on the mountain and the raising of Jairus' daughter (Matthew 17, Luke 8:49-56): Peter, James, and John. All three accounts record that Jesus told them to pray, but Luke's account adds, "that you may not enter into temptation." Matthew and Mark record Him going away for three agonizing prayers and each time finding His disciples asleep on the watch. He rebukes Peter telling him that his "spirit is willing but his flesh is weak" (Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38). God is not finished with Peter yet. He was eager with his mouth but not able to follow through with his actions as we will see very soon. 

Jesus' prayers were not because He was afraid of death, the "cup" He would endure would be taking on the sins of the world (John 18:11; 1 Peter 2:24). He was made sin and a curse for mankind (2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:13). He would also be forsaken by the Father (Matthew 27:46) at that moment (for a holy God cannot abide with sin). Jesus willingly drank this cup but not without agony. That would be a hard cup for the sinless Jesus, vitally connected to the Father! But it was necessary for us (Join the Bible Book Club for the book of Romans, and we will discuss this further!). 

The Luke account is a little different. It does not record the three prayers, and it also said that "an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him," and that in the agony of His prayer "His sweat became like drops of blood, falling down upon the ground" (Luke 22:43-44). This was no easy task for Jesus. 

224. Jesus is betrayed and arrested: Matthew 26:47-56, Mark 14:43-52, Luke 22:47-53, John 18:1-11.


Judas brings a large crowd, and the John account explains it was not only from the Jewish religious leaders, but also the Roman cohort (about 600 soldiers).

When they said they were looking for Jesus the Nazarene, John records that Jesus responded by saying, "I am." The NASB adds He in italics indicating that this word is not in the original Greek. If you are reading this in many other versions (including the NIV) they say “I am he” without italics and a very important thing is lost in the translation. Jesus was asserting His deity by saying “I am” (Exodus 3:14; John 8:58)!  I think this is why the people fell to the ground!


Matthew, Mark, and Luke mention Judas betraying Jesus with a kiss. John mentions Peter's brash act of cutting off the slave's right ear and even mentions his name! Jesus was arrested willingly and without any harm to His disciples fulfilling His prayer in John 17:2 (John 18:9). 

Here is the helpful map of Jerusalem I mentioned above: 


From: http://www.deloreyfamily.org/JerusalemDuringChristsTime.jpg

From: The Bible Knowledge Commentary New Testament, p. 84

Religious (Jewish) Trials 


Early Friday Morning before Dawn (when the "cock crowed")

227. Peter denies knowing Jesus: Matthew 26:69-75, Mark 14:66-72, Luke 22:54-65, John 18:25-27

It is just before dawn, and these denials occurred either during the Jesus's trial with Annas (John 18:12-24) or Caiphas (Matthew 26:57-68; Mark 14:53-65).  The three denials are in such contrast to his boast to lay down his life for Jesus (John 13:37) and the cutting off of Malchus' ear during the arrest (John 18:10). How ironic that a relative of Malchus would ask the final question that prompted the final denial! Don't lose hope on Peter though. Those three denials will be followed by three affirmations by Peter in John 21. Stay tuned!

At Dawn

Religious Trial Three

228. The council of religious leaders condemns Jesus: Matthew 27:1-2, Mark 15:1, Luke 22:66-71

The Luke account of this event gives the most detail. At daybreak (because it was illegal to meet at night), Jesus was led to the third Jewish trial before the Sanhedrin (council of elders). They were the the official judicial body of the Jewish nation. It was also considered the final court of appeals. Jesus said He was the Son of God and would be seated at the right hand of God. Jesus was pronounced GUILTY of blasphemy. Now, Jesus had to be handed over to the civil court of the Romans because the Jews were not allowed to sentence anyone to death. The leaders refused to believe; just as Jesus said. 

REFLECTION/APPLICATION 

When following Jesus isn't cool, do you subtly deny Him by not speaking up for Him? I don't know if I wouldn't have done the same thing as Peter. It is hard to be "under fire."  Our self-preservation mode kicks in during those times, and it is hard to overcome our flesh (remember in the Matthew and Mark accounts in the Garden that Jesus told Peter specifically that "his spirit was willing but his flesh was weak" [Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38]). 

Just yesterday, I felt cornered by three people who could not understand why I had done something a few years ago. I simply answered, "I have to stand before God on that." Sometimes it is hard to stand against the tide. But we stand with God. 

What about you? Do you stand up (with gentleness and respect) when you are persecuted for Jesus?  Pray about it.

PRAYER

Lord, help us to stand strong and not deny Your name. Amen. 
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